After the fall of Rome in the West during the 5th Century AD, the power vacuum it created forced its former conquests into centuries of bitter warfare, famine, disease, and conflict.

Yet despite the constant fear of death, there was enough calm during the Middle Ages for great leaps forward in science and invention in Europe.

Far from being a period of little to no technological progress, the Middle Ages had its fair share of new inventions, like any other period of history.

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These 18 medieval inventions and how they made it to Europe are prime examples. Some of them were so important that they would ultimately pave the way to certain aspects of the world we live in.

The following list is far from exhaustive and in no particular order.

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